1. Missouri Electronic Journal of Sociology - 2015 Archive




Equal Access in Urban Spaces:

Gender Mainstreaming in Urban Planning

Olivia Piontek

University of Central Missouri

Abstract: More than half of the world’s population currently lives in urban areas.  As agricultural production becomes more irrelevant in an evolving world economy based on service and technology, rural residents are migrating to urban areas in increasing numbers.  City governments are having difficulty providing adequate housing, transportation, and social services, and quality of life in urban spaces is quickly declining.  One population most affected by the deterioration of city spaces is women.  Women’s changing roles as both producer and reproducer require her to rely on the resources of the city; when these resources aren’t there, women are forced to move to slums on the periphery of the city, increasing their chances of violence and crime perpetrated against them.  Additionally, if urban housing is available, cities are built in such a way as to cater to the traditional gender-based needs and roles of men, limiting women’s participation in and access to the opportunities a city offers.  This paper will discuss the issues women face when confronting a male-built city and the importance of building inclusive environments with purposive strategies such as gender mainstreaming.  It will consider the successes of Vienna, Austria, in gender-sensitive planning.  Finally, it will discuss the effects of real-estate, government intervention, and the global economy in perpetuating exclusion in urban space and creating equal access.


The Nature of Sickness and Use of American Health Care Services by Older Chinese Living in St. Louis:

Fangzheng Yuan

Office for Research on Aging

St. Louis College of Pharmacy

Abstract: How do elderly Chinese persons living in the United States perceive the nature of sickness, and what do they think about American health care services? A sample of older Chinese people living in St. Louis were asked to explain their conception of sickness through sketching and answering survey questions regarding their use of health care services. Their responses show that Chinese elders rely on family members and church friends for healthcare access, such as transportation, and for language interpretation during physician visits. Moreover, they tend to interpret diseases that involve internal organs as major diseases, which require a clinical visit. Respondents who hold a visitor visa, are insured in China, experience symptoms involving internal structures and have lower English proficiency, are more likely to return to China for hospital visits.

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